TODAY -

The Fate of Loktak Lake

Courtesy : Khwairakpam Gajananda & Thokchom Sundari Chanu *



Manipur the ‘Jewel of India’ or the ‘Switzerland of the East’ has so many peculiar features. Endemic plants, animals and scenic beauties regardless of any exaggeration, will always be pristine. The state which lies between the 230 80’ N - 250 68’ N and 930 03’ E - 940 78’ E at the North East extreme of India, nestling at an altitude of about 790 m above the mean sea level was guarded naturally by nine ranges of hills (Fig.1). Although, Manipur is a small state (area = 22,327 Sq. Kms), the species endemism are surprising large. The climate, topography, and geographical conditions are somewhat different from the rest of the world, determining the large number of biological diversity in this state.

Adding more to its beauty like a sparkling diamond amongst the pearls, a beautiful lake known as “Loktak Lake” shines at the center of the state. Loktak (LOK = stream + TAK = the end) is the journey end of several streams and rivers. It is also a pulsating lake, which is about 500 Sq. Kms during rainy season and 250 Sq. kms during winter and is proud to be the largest fresh water lake in the northeastern region of India.

The cultural and the traditional aspects of Manipuris will never be completed without relating this lake, which has been witnessing the whole history from the beginning of the Manipuri civilization. “Moirang Kangleirol” among the various examples is still remembered till today. This lake is inevitable to the communities of Manipur.

Loktak Lake is becoming very important in terms of its socio economic value, environment, cultural, tourism, habitats of numerous waterfowls, plants, animals, fishes, its dynamic ecological system, potential natural resources etc. were all becoming indispensable to the people of not only Manipur, but also to the world. The first international concern of this lake was in the year 1990 in which “the Convention on Wetlands of International Importance” drafted at the Iranian City of ‘Ramsar’ (1971) gives full emphasis of the Loktak Lake for its peculiar characteristics. This convention simply known as “Ramsar Convention” thereby brings the Loktak Lake into the international status for its uniqueness and put into the limelight for its conservation and management

Out of the 18,37,149 (as per 1991 census) populations of Manipur about 12 Lakhs people are directly or indirectly benefited from this lake. Foods, agriculture, irrigation, pisci-culture, energy, aesthetic and recreational values are exploited by the people since time immemorial. Thus, the exploitation of the various renewable and nonrenewable resources decides the socio-economic condition of the state. During the 1979 Manipur famine, the fruits of Trapa bispinosa/Trapa natans (Heikak) and Euryale ferox (Thangjing) were the only sources of livelihood for thousands of people.

Just two decades back, the biodiversity of Loktak Lake was very rich in its floristic and faunistic value. However, today, the most important fauna of this lake, the Brow-antelered deer or Cervus eldi eldi (Sangai) is at the verge of extinction. Efforts are made by the government, voluntary organizations, and individuals to conserve this priceless deer species from extinction. In 1977 the Indian Board of Wildlife gave ‘Keibul Lamjao’ the status of a national park.

A recent survey of the Loktak Lake revealed many of the undesirable factors, which we have been avoiding till today, either knowingly or unknowingly. An attempt to make the decision-makers aware about the fate of this lake has been put forward in this brief report. The major issues are as follows:

1. Waste products brought by the rivers
Nearly 29 to 30 rivers and streams feed Loktak Lake. ‘Ungamel Channel’ (Ithai Barrage) is the only outlet for this lake. The perennial rivers and streams, which flow into Loktak Lake, bring sediments every day in their course to the lake. Continuous soil erosion in the hilly terrain due to deforestation further enhances the process. The sediments deposit at the mouth of the rivers contributes to shallowing of the lake bottom. As most of the rivers flows in the heart or center of the cities and towns, the urban sewage dumped into these rivers ultimately reached the lake, whereby contributed in deteoriating the delicate ecosystem of the lake. Highly toxic substances such as insecticides, pesticides, oils, polythene bags, other non-biodegradable waste and municipal wastes further create a disastrous situation to the lake environment. “Nambul” river the most polluted river in Manipur ends up in this lake after depositing whatever possible pollutant it bring in its course. “Thongjaorok” or Bishnupur River on the other hand brought its entire sediments load, cause due to mass deforestation in the upper part of the hilly region of this river.

2. Soil erosion at Thanga Island
Today the face of “Thanga Island” has become scared by both natural and anthropogenic actions. Among the natural causes are the wind, waves, rainfall, and weathering of the rocks. This phenomenon was greatly enhanced by the human intervention, to fulfill the needs in an unsustainable manner. Various activities such as road construction, housing, playgrounds, schools, clubs, theatres etc. are degrading the environment of this island at its utmost level. Circular road constructed around this hill island by cutting trees and the sides are making unaesthetic and erosional features. Control measures over this highly populated hill island is out of question and it will remain unrestored, witnessing its dwindling environment helplessly, till it submerge into the lake!

3. Floating huts or Phumshang
Although a traditional way of living and a unique feature of Loktak Lake created by the local fishermen, “floating huts” or “phumshang” has disrupted the environment of the lake. As the population of the fishermen increased the number of phumshang also increased manifold. Now the huts can be estimated upto 2000 in number. Various plastic ropes, heavy rocks, woods, bamboos, zinc plates, iron rods etc. were use to construct the huts. Numerous pesticides and insecticides are also used for catching fish or as insects repellent. The live of a phumshang can be estimated upto 20 years, after that it sinks into the lake causing all the possible environmental degradation it can result!

The main concerns of phumshangs are the formation of vertical profiles of the lake water body (Fig.3). The phumshang, which was made by accumulating hydrophytic plants, rocks, woods, bamboo’s, plastic ropes etc. blocks the sunlight to enter into the water. The lower portion of the floating hut decomposed and sinks down on the lake bottom, which is termed as “benthal”. The decomposed materials of benthal released toxic gases like methane, H2S, etc. dissolving the oxygen and making the water septic and polluted for the aquatic plants and animals to survive. The layer above benthal, which is a dead water zone, is called as “hypolimnion”. Above hypolimnion, a thin layer termed as “epilimnion” is the only place for some game fish to survive. In this zone, very little penetration of sunlight allows aquatic plants to grow and local fish to survive. Today, the benthal of Loktak Lake has become increasingly thick, which not only pollute the lake water but also contributed largely in shallowing the lake.

4. Extinction/Loss of indigenous species
Introductions of new and alien species of animals or plants are sometime drastic to those introduced habitats. Some of the best examples are the introduction of rabbits in Australia and pigs in Mauritius. These two animals had caused all the possible destruction in these two island nations. In Australia all the vegetation’s and crops destroyed and the population of rabbits increased astronomically, so the Government declared it as pest. Whereas, during the 17th century in Mauritius the Dutch introduced pigs’ breaks down all the eggs of the flightless bird called “Dodo”, now dodo is extinct (since 1692) and can never be seen in this world.

Similarly, during the 80s the Government of Manipur had introduced many species of fishes, amphibians, insects and plants into the Loktak Lake without any concerns about the future consequences of the introduction of new and alien species. Among these are the grass craps, silver craps; insects like Weevil species (Neochetina eichhornia and Neochetina bruchi) etc. These have causes many perturbations to this lake ecosystem. Bottom-feeding rough fish stir up sediment, which released phosphorus. Indigenous species of fishes, plants and animals are rarely seen now. Earlier, during the 60s and 70s the lake was decorated with Nelumbo nucifera (lotus), Nymphaea stellata (lily), Alisma plantago (Kakthrum), Sagittaria sagittifolia (Koukha), Setaria pallidefusea (Kambong), Oenanthe javanica (Komprec), Alpinia galanga (Pullei) etc. but today where has it all gone? Once Loktak Lake was a playground for the local fishes like Channa punctatus (Ngamu), Anabus testudinius (Ukabi), Anguilla (Ngaril) and other locally known fishes such as Pangba, Tharak, Ngashap, etc. These fishes have now cursed the human being and surrendered to its rivals (introduced fishes) and slowly leaving its own home!

Why it happens to our beloved Loktak Lake? The answer is we forgot to conserve our precious lake in a sustainable ways. The competitions amongst the introduced fishes and the local fishes, clearance of the breeding sites of the local habitats, water pollution, blockage at the Ithai Barrage dam for the periodic spawning fish to swim upstream, eutrophication and the menace of Eichhornia crassipes (Kabokang), stratification of the lake, over fishing etc. are the major culprits. Recent out break of the fish’s disease ‘Holo-ulceritis’ or UDC (ulcerative disease symptoms) was all due to highly polluted water body. The victims of this disease were mainly the indigenous fishes.

The famous endangered Cervus eldi eldi (Sangai) is now at the mercy of the ruthless human being and the fate of extinction is knocking at the heaven’s door!

Strategies to preserve Sangai were framed, rules and regulations are made, various do’s and don’ts were put into force. But the sad part is that the population of Sangai is always at the danger mark. This is because the authorities do not realize the actual meaning of ecosystem preservation. It is that the small plants, animals, birds and the microorganisms, which are more vulnerable to human perturbations. They interact with their nonliving environment to make sustain and survive this valuable Sangai and what else, we human being too! Therefore, the conservation of the minute plants and animals, also the physical and chemical environments are more or less important like we do for our Sangai. Today, we are witnessing the failures of the conservation strategies of the government, which is likely to be continued in the near future also. The victims will not be our Sangai but it is our coming generations that will live grievously by the betrayal of their ancestors.

5. Water pollution
Detergents, soaps and other phosphates and nitrates containing chemicals, which brought down by the rivers to this lake cause ‘eutrophication’ of the lake. In this process algal blooms started and compete with other aquatic plants for light and nutrients. These blooms release toxic chemicals killing aquatic plants, animals, and birds and deplete oxygen; thus water begins to stink. As the water body is lentic, the decomposed organic matters remain in the lake for a very long time. Use of chemical weedicides, rapid accumulation of weeds near the lake shores, use of pesticides and insecticides, chemical fertilizers, and other non-biodegradable substances are all the factors for causing the lake water polluted.

6. Shallowing of the lake
As mentioned in Section 1, nearly 29 to 30 rivers and streams feed the Loktak Lake. The incoming rivers and streams brought sediments and dump it into this lake. The outlet (Ungamel Channel) removes only the excess water and practically no sediments. The depression is fill up with sediments and in course of time converts into terrestrial landform. The process is known as ‘Hydroseric Succession’. Therefore, the life of all the lakes is not permanent.
The Loktak Development Authority (LDA) decisions of dredging the lake bottom are too fast. The officials should understand the ecological perturbations and the future consequences. They should adopt a comprehensive Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) report. The decision of the EIA should involve the local people and transparent. Foreign consultant will do no good for this lake because a thorough on site survey of the lake is needed for any conclusive decision. Otherwise, the failure of the project is inevitable!

7. Impacts on Migratory birds
Migratory birds are the indicators of climatic change. They flew from one place to another where there are abundant food supplies and suitable climatic conditions with nestling sites. Earlier flocks of migratory birds annually arrived in this lake from far-flung place like ‘Siberia’ and other parts of the world. Siberian cranes, wild ducks, herons, pink-headed ducks etc. are some of the birds, which annually visited Loktak Lake. Just a decade back the sky was alive with flocks of birds and the quacking were heard everywhere in Manipur. Today’s generation has miss something very unique and they are not going to hear or see either the native birds or the migratory one.

Pink-headed ducks were reported to be extinct from the lake by the British’s due to extensive shooting. The native brown crow (Kwak), which was once a sacred bird, is no longer heard cawing. The possible causes are climatic change, extensive shooting or killing, over population of human, deforestation, habitat destruction, use of pesticides and insecticides in agricultural practice etc.

8. High water level
As the lake become shallower the level of the water also rises. Thousands of hectares of cultivable lands and grazing fields are submerse into the water. People migrated from their original land and become poor and helpless. Thousands of tons of producible rice are now lost. Poverty, unemployment and lack of proteins are making the people disturbed. On the other hand the once cultivated field, which are now submerge are producing weeds!

The Loktak Hydro Electric Power Corporation is enjoying the high water level. But, it is not the high level of water, which the project should concern; it is the volume of water, which the project should focus. The more the volume of water, the more will be the energy production. It can only be satisfied if the lake is deep. To make it deep, a comprehensive environmental study is seriously needed by giving full emphasis on ecosystem conservation and sustainable development.

9. Water scarcity and energy crisis
The NHPC promised 105 megawatts of electricity has become a lip service within a short span of time. Energy theft and non-payment of taxes, which was levied for the electricity consumers and importantly the most concerned water volume, makes them helpless. During winter when the lake water reduced drastically, further generation of energy usually stop. To cope up this problem the Loktak Development Authority (LDA) was set up. It is difficult to predict the future of LDA presently, but easy to tell the fate of Loktak Lake, which LDA has been continuously destructing the pristine ecosystem. In the process of dredging, a large number of flora and fauna are perturbed. It is still unclear whether the LDA is going to dredge the buffer zone of the Keibul Lamjao National Park where the endangered deer species Sangai thrive.

10. Impacts on socio-economy of the state
Loktak Lake is the common resource of the people of Manipur. Large amount of incomes can be generated, if it is manage and utilize in a proper and sustainable ways. Resources such as fisheries, agriculture, irrigation, biological resources, tourism, hydropower projects, etc. are readily utilizable from this lake. Presently, it is found that resource utilization is minimal whereas resource depletion is very high. Thus it brings about the concept of the “tragedy of common”.

The tragedy of common or the major economic crisis are brought about by the submerged cultivable lands, submerged grazing fields of cattle’s, poor harvesting of fishes, failure of the power supplies due to lesser water volume, unemployment etc. One best example of the economic crisis is the submerged grazing grounds, which leads to reduction in the cattle’s population. To cope up the problems new management strategies should be taken up by monitoring and evaluating the various potential impacts and drew attentions to the public for participation in restoring this lake.

11. Human impact on the ecosystem
Man is responsible for all the disastrous situation of Loktak Lake. Using of hazardous substances such as, DDT, PCB’s (Polychlorinated biphenyl), greases, phenols, plastics, plasticizers, metallic wastes, suspended solids, toxins, acids, salts, dyes, agricultural fertilizers, pesticides, insecticides, oil and petroleum products, and other municipal wastes brought by the rivers, makes the lake a huge dead water body. With these substances contaminating the lake, various plants, animals, microorganisms, molluscs, fishes, birds, amphibians, reptiles, and even human were severely affected. Instances of food poisoning and disease symptoms were frequently reported after consuming the contaminated fishes and other foods.

Oil spilled over the lake surface reflected the incoming sunlight and degraded the ecosystem and the water become unwanted for further use. Plants, animals, birds, were the victims of this pollutant. Another concern is the poor sanitation of the local people, which largely contributed in spreading diseases, and degradation of the environment. The once beautiful lake, which was full of birds, flowers, beautiful insects, butterflies, buffaloes, wild boars, deer’s, fishermen, and other natural gifts will not be witness by the coming generation

12. Conclusion
Is not it our concern today for the coming generations to live in harmony with the local environment? We have tortured too much of our precious Loktak Lake. It’s now time for us to give some attention towards its dwindling environment and stop the manipulation created by laymen. Before its too late, we should join hand and come up with some solution. The various negative factors given above can be made slower if we adopt certain lake restoration techniques such as: treatment ponds and wetland, watershed management, fish harvesting, aquatic plant control, aeration system, alum treatment, modeling of lake phosphorus budget, vacuum sweeping, waste water discharge control, hypolimnetic aeration, erosion control, rough fish removal, dredging, draw down, dilution, flushing etc. The government, university, colleges, local people, voluntary organizations and individuals are appealed to wake up and carry out some new and innovative program for conserving this lake ecosystem at the earliest. Last but not the least; politics should not be constrains for this developmental scenario.

For any queries, please contact:
Khwairakpam Gajananda (CSIR/SRF)
(Member 18th Indian Scientific Expedition to Antarctica)
R.No.210, Radio & Atmospheric Sciences Division,
National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi-110 012
E-Mail: gajkh@yahoo.com or kh_gaja@yahoo.com

* Thokchom Sundari Chanu (Secretary Finance)
D-Cacus-Education Center,
(The Development on Communication Arts & Culture, Science, Economic & Education Center, H/O Ningthoukhong)
New Delhi Branch.
Nanakpura Guru Dwara, Moti Bagh, New Dehi-110 021
E-Mail: sunkhwai76@gmail.com



* Comments posted by users in this discussion thread and other parts of this site are opinions of the individuals posting them (whose user ID is displayed alongside) and not the views of e-pao.net. We strongly recommend that users exercise responsibility, sensitivity and caution over language while writing your opinions which will be seen and read by other users. Please read a complete Guideline on using comments on this website.




LATEST IN E-PAO.NET
  • COVID-19 Status 14 July : Govt of Manipur
  • Batting for revival of Kamjong AC
  • Mining MoUs & Concerns in Manipur
  • COVID-19 Status 13 July : Govt of Manipur
  • Agriculture innovation to achieve food security
  • Lines for Children :: Poem
  • School business: True lies
  • 'Call for PDA Govt to step down is justified'
  • Donation of PPE to Chief Minister by SBI
  • Understanding containment zone
  • COVID-19 and the way forward
  • Licypriya low-cost 'Face Shields' : Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 12 July : Govt of Manipur
  • Airlifting of organic Pineapples : Gallery
  • Annual Orphanage Visit at Pune
  • Licypriya Kangujam low-cost 'Face Shields'
  • 9th Manipuri Film Awards (MANIFA) Result
  • COVID-19 : Impact in Manipur :: News Timeline
  • Twists & turns in resignation drama
  • Cheers to Tangkhul Forum of COVID-19
  • COVID-19 Status 11 July : Govt of Manipur
  • The Killing Fields 2013-20 : News Timeline
  • 11 July 2020 : World Population Day
  • Let the child LIVE!!!
  • You and Yours :: Poem
  • Webinar: The need of the hour
  • Tears still wet eys of extrajudicial victims widow
  • Yaoshang Halankar @BijoyGovinda #2: Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 10 July : Govt of Manipur
  • Webninar: Re-imagine Ethnopharmacology
  • In-Situ & Ex-Situ Transmissions of COVID-19
  • Gyanendro Ningombam- Hockey President
  • Morning Prayer in COVID 19 Lockdown : Poem
  • PDA Nagaland : Meeting Resolutions
  • Wanted : Cooking Gas, Not Laughing Gas
  • The NPP conundrum
  • Save Nambul River
  • COVID-19 Status 09 July : Govt of Manipur
  • Stigma & COVID: Challenge in path to recovery
  • The mystery bird :: Poem
  • A dozen of Ministers is not enough
  • A.I in Modern Era
  • Consider cooperative as career choice
  • Time to strengthen party at grassroot level
  • Manipur & the Lushai Expedition, 1871-72 #2
  • COVID-19 Status 08 July : Govt of Manipur
  • The Flat Keys :: Poem
  • List of plenary talks @ RIST, MU
  • Combating COVID-19 by empowering youth
  • Distribution of Face Mask to Children Homes
  • Essay Writing Competition : My Idea of Justice
  • All eyes now on Thangmeiband, Jiribam
  • Barak waterfall @ Tamenglong #2 : Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 07 July : Govt of Manipur
  • NE natives dubbed as second class citizen
  • The changing trend of Media in Manipur
  • When I lost my hope :: Poem
  • Lockdown & its impacts on society
  • Understanding spirit of a coalition
  • Changing nature of Meiteilon- Pabung/Papa
  • COVID-19 Status 06 July : Govt of Manipur
  • Atha Kongyamba, Kimneichin: eMing
  • To my goddess of love :: Poem
  • COVID-19 & 14-day quarantine in Manipur
  • Humanitarian Award to Kuki Kanglai Lawmpi
  • NPF Reply to press statement by NDPP
  • NPCC Reply to press statement by NDPP
  • Sericulture as career choice
  • 157 Films to screen at KASHISH 2020 Virtual
  • Crucial days between collection & result
  • COVID 19 pandemic and Nambul River
  • Kanglen Aarti katpa #2 : Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 05 July : Govt of Manipur
  • Land Commission for improving relations #2
  • Honourable Governor R.N. Ravi effects!
  • Observation on Governor Letter to CM: NPF
  • Reconstitution of Jurisdiction of Zones
  • Complete lockdown in Jiribam amid Unlock 2.0
  • Eikhoigi Puwarini Nambul Turel #2 : Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 04 July : Govt of Manipur
  • Implication of Draft EIA Notification 2020
  • Plain packaging will aid in ending tobacco
  • The virus and I :: Poem
  • Impact of COVID-19 on students
  • Delimitation & development: Role of Census
  • War on invisible enemy
  • Manipur & the Lushai Expedition, 1871-72 #1
  • COVID-19 Status 03 July : Govt of Manipur
  • Online Painting/ Sketching Competition
  • Covid-19: Impact in Manipur :: Photos/News..
  • Extension of Disturbed Area Act in Nagaland
  • The Politics of South China Sea Disputes : Book
  • Xi Jinping - Know the man, his upbringing..
  • Save Nambul River mission
  • If 'Transparency' is an alien concept?
  • Fashion Show @ Sangai Fest #2 : Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 02 July : Govt of Manipur
  • Eikhoigi Puwarini Nambul Turel #1 : Gallery
  • German agency to support NE entrepreneurs
  • Naawa Seidum: 'Best Narrative Film' at MIFF
  • The twilight of nature :: Poem
  • Career scope in Chemistry
  • Condemns non-inclusion of bodo language
  • Compulsion behind 5 days ultimatum
  • Unfolding the menace of Health Department
  • View from Shirui Hills in Ukhrul #2 : Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 01 July : Govt of Manipur
  • Power dynamics: Leikai Clubs & Meira Paibi
  • People's charter of demands to PM & CMs
  • A discourse with my soul :: Poem
  • Can antiviral fabrics stop the spread of COVID
  • Design behind 'abnormal' growth ?
  • Apologetic misnomer
  • Kanglen Aarti katpa #1 : Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 30 June : Govt of Manipur
  • Land Commission for improving relations #1
  • National Statistics Day & Statistical system
  • Distribution of Face Mask to Old Age Homes
  • A walk on prime meridian
  • Manipur leads a valiant fight against COVID
  • 48 hours later and not yet a word
  • Fate of print media in aftermath of COVID-19
  • Great June Uprising @Kekrupat #3 : Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 29 June : Govt of Manipur
  • July Calendar for Year 2020 : Tools
  • Cyberbullying using social media as weapons
  • Distribution of Face Mask to CRPF Personnel
  • Sports, children & transferability to classroom
  • The rain sings outside the window :: Poem
  • Online learning enrolments during lockdown
  • Morphing from negative to positive
  • COVID-19 and its impact to community
  • Gandhari (Dance Drama) #4 : Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 28 June : Govt of Manipur
  • Takhelchangbam Kunjabihari : Wari Liba
  • Antrimwanbut Khwan : Inpui emagazine
  • Public services essential to COVID response
  • Rajas & Maharajas in Parliament
  • Naga artist Ket Meth releases music video
  • Extending lockdown till July 15
  • Neire, Mei Taare- words of the new generation
  • COVID-19 Status 27 June : Govt of Manipur
  • E-Conference : New Frontiers in Science
  • COVID mirror
  • Property Sales & Client Support @ R-Square
  • SKY Hospital - 12th Foundation Day
  • Benjamin Tao - Convenor, Manipur, TICCI
  • Online Social Work Alumni Meet at RGU
  • Naga Peace Process :: News Timeline
  • Has state BJP succumbed to NPP's pressure?
  • Individual responsibility to battle Corona
  • COVID-19 Status 26 June : Govt of Manipur
  • The Lushai Expedition, 1871-72
  • Intl Day in Support of Victims of Torture
  • Remember :: Poem
  • Yoga as career choice
  • Head count on contentious census
  • In the game of politics
  • I Rise :: Film Scenes : eRang
  • Kits to frontliners @ ISBT : Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 25 June : Govt of Manipur
  • International Day against Drug Abuse [Jun 26]
  • Corruption: A National Security Issue
  • Book : Rights & Entitlements at Chandel
  • Power tussle amid pandemic
  • Still no checking on corruption
  • Sangai Fest [Dec 1 2019] #3 : Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 24 June : Govt of Manipur
  • Essentials must include reproductive health
  • To peruse a father's heart :: Poem
  • The importance of the way we think
  • Politics of South China Sea disputes : Book
  • Art of running a coalition Govt
  • Great June Uprising @Kekrupat #2 : Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 23 June : Govt of Manipur
  • Sports and environment in Manipur
  • Corona stigma dogging even doctors & nurses
  • Mapping the Change Makers in North East
  • TNL knew better meaning of Quarantine
  • The Kukis, Justice and the UN
  • Scripting a high octane drama
  • QC at Saikul in Kangpokpi : Gallery
  • COVID-19 Status 22 June : Govt of Manipur
  • Impacts of Mapithel dam on forest & climate
  • Kang Chingba (Rath Yatra) Festival :: Book
  • Messengers of hope on World Music Day
  • Sound of environment :: Poem
  • Online Conclave for Women Entrepreneurs
  • Admission for Class XI should not be closed
  • Approaching the four figure mark
  • Demoralizing anti-corruption crusade
  • Lameithanbi - a myth with geological linkage
  • COVID-19 Status 21 June : Govt of Manipur
  • Highways of Life - best film at DocFest B'desh
  • The Unwelcome Delimitation : Part - II
  • We and today :: Poem
  • Yoga - A need of the hour
  • Cupid in COVID times
  • Voices for & against delimitation
  • Amur Falcon Fest @Tamenglong #2 : Gallery
  • Gerrymandering in delimitation of AC
  • Jobs at LMP Technology, Canchipur
  • The gateway to heaven :: Poem
  • Nongpok Sanjenbam village #2 : Gallery
  • Axone & Lingering Question of Racism in India
  • Training : Prevention of Spread of COVID-19
  • Patents or people: Conundrum of healthcare
  • Rahul Gandhi birthday observed at Dimapur
  • Programme on Disaster Risk Reduction
  • Interesting election to lone RS seat
  • Arithmetic doesn't work in politics
  • Great June Uprising @Kekrupat #1 : Gallery
  • Training program on cultivation of mushroom
  • NHRC registered Case to investigate Oil Spill
  • Experience :: Poem
  • Floriculture as career choice
  • Quarantine Center @ Mantripukri : Gallery
  • What Now for Returning Migrant Workers
  • Activation of State Food Commission
  • At a crossroad :: Poem
  • Women Entrepreneurs' program in Northeast
  • 28 days quarantine period : TNL example
  • Arambam Samarendra Anniv #2 : Gallery
  • Class X (HSLC) Exam Toppers : Gallery
  • Leirum and Luirim connotation
  • Class X Exam 2020 : Merit List
  • Class X Exam 2020 : Result Sheet
  • Class X Exam 2020 : Subject Toppers
  • Class X Exam 2020 : Statistics Abstract
  • Adieu to Pi, Themneihat ..
  • Quarantine @ UNACCO School: Gallery
  • Motsillaba Mingsel :: eRang Photos
  • Laibi Oinam : Lady Auto Driver ...
  • Train @Jiri [May 28] #2 : Gallery
  • Measures @ Imphal Airport - 25 May : Gallery
  • Eyek Tamba :: Learn Manipuri script
  • Featured Front Page Photo 2020 #2: Gallery
  • Items distributed to Tarao -Apr 23 #2: Gallery
  • SPONSORED ADS