TODAY -



E-Pao! Education - Urea in fish farms: What's left to eat?

Urea in fish farms: What's left to eat?

By: Irabanta Oinam *



Do we need a law to get fish farmers to manage nutrients?

Modern day citizens of the world are hooked on chemicals, though most are not aware of it. Resource-intensive food production methods, rising population and rising per capita consumption are bringing us closer to the limits of the planet's ability to produce safe food for everyone.

Consumption of excess chemical fertilizers has a broad range of effects on human and animal health. We talk about organic farming because the commonly used chemical fertilizers found in food can significantly influence ill-health of consumers.

Urea was discovered by Hilaire Rouelle in 1773. It was the first organic compound to be artificially synthesized from inorganic starting materials, in 1828 by Friedrich Woehler. Urea has the highest nitrogen content of all solid nitrogenous fertilizers in common use (46.4%N). It, therefore, has the lowest transportation costs per unit of nitrogen nutrient.

Fertilizers and supplemental feeds are predominant inputs of nutrient among various sources in closed ponds fish farming. Fertilizers are used primarily to propagate natural organisms as fish feed. Proper fertilizers and feeds are essential for high fish yields.

Today we replace the organic fertilize inputs of nutrient by chemical fertilizer such as urea in the most existing fish farms of Manipur to enhance supplement, or replace natural pond productivity. To increase pond carrying capacity, off-farm inputs such as chemical fertilizers and supplementary feeds are required.

So that vast amounts of nitrogen (urea) are used to increase the growth of fish during the short period. This nutrient passes right through the fish. The larger the livestock operation, the more nutrients will concentrate. More fish could be produced on less land within a short period by fewer people, thus supporting a huge population. As a result of modern chemical fish farming methods use large scale chemical fertilizers especially urea in Manipur.

Chemical farming generally pleases most people because they have earned good income within the short period. However, the most concerned problem resulted from the intensive culture is waste effluents which contain concentrated nutrients and suspended solids.

Those wastes are a major source of pollution that deteriorates water quality and accelerates eutrophication of aquatic environment. In closed pond culture systems with little water exchange the wastes in water are discharged when draining the ponds during fish harvest.

Many people do not realize the environmental and health costs stemming from tons of Urea poured into the fish farms to increase the growth of the fishes within a short span. The closed nature of the aquaculture system is an additional barrier to contamination of concentrate urea in the fish which may be a problem with farm-raised fishes of Manipur but should not be an issue in fish caught in the wild.

We do not consider the environmental impact based on the rate of nutrient wastes. The increasing use of chemicals in fish production may pose a relatively new set of risks. Excess nutrients fuel algal blooms by speeding up the algae's growth-and-decay cycle. This depletes oxygen in the water, killing off immobile bottom dwellers.

Excess nitrogen in soil can lead to less diversity of plant species, as well as reduced production of biomass. It can gradually increase the acidity of the soil until it begins to impede plant growth. Chemically fertilized makes less biologic activity in the soil food web (the microscopic organisms that make up the soil ecosystem). Misuse of excess urea in the modern fish farms in the state may result a great environmental impact.

In any commercial aquaculture venture, food safety is an issue. Despite these concerns the World Health Organization considers the fish industry to be of low risk to human health. Hunger and food insecurity are currently problems not of resource scarcity but of insufficient political will or moral imperative to change the way food is allocated.

It is estimated that the developing world alone is producing enough food to provide every person with > 2,500 calories/day. If unsustainable aquaculture remains the norm, it may became a major factor in fish food insecurity in the long run.

Both the individual and collective actions would hasten the shift toward a more sustainable pisceculture, which is an important component in the larger transition to a sustainable economy.

The mission of the fish farm shall include the goal of protection of the environment and of the consumer. It is of utmost importance to ensure the success of the fish farms to harvest and distribute the finest and safest of products to the public. Future considerations must include social considerations of community as well as employment opportunities made available by the fish farms.

All fish farmers need to protect the environment. Organic guidelines have long recognized the risks associated with misuse of chemical fertilizers and include rules that promote the best management practices, and organic standards prohibit chemical fertilizers.

Shall we use our resources in the unsustainable way by compromising the future option?


* Irabanta Oinam wrote this article for The Sangai Express
This article was webcasted on July 21st, 2006



* Comments posted by users in this discussion thread and other parts of this site are opinions of the individuals posting them (whose user ID is displayed alongside) and not the views of e-pao.net. We strongly recommend that users exercise responsibility, sensitivity and caution over language while writing your opinions which will be seen and read by other users. Please read a complete Guideline on using comments on this website.




LATEST IN E-PAO.NET
  • HSLC :: Top 25 Rank Holders
  • HSLC :: Statistics /Subject Topper
  • HSLC: Roll No Listing
  • Reflection- Conflicts of our Times #2
  • Ashipro, Thuijeiliu :: eMing
  • Imphal flooded [May 23] #1 : Gallery
  • Integration, Yes!! Assimilation, No!!
  • Legislative Intervention for Cyber Crimes
  • Inner Line Permit (ILP) :: Timeline
  • CBSTDC Manipur Statement of May 23rd
  • Mega Miss North East Audition in Shillong
  • Mega Mister North East Audition in Shillong
  • Imphal vehicles stranded in Nagaland
  • NIA wants Myanmar to nab Khaplang
  • Sarjubala enter World C'ship quarters
  • Manipur to follow 'no-interview' move
  • Growing culture of bandhs & shutdowns
  • Adversity to opportunity
  • Imphal/Thoubal flooded #1 : Gallery
  • Revolution :: Radio E-pao
  • ILP : Sintha Leppa #1 : Gallery
  • Studying Outside
  • Opposing ST demand -insulated view #2
  • Screening for breast & cervical cancer
  • My Magi :: Poem
  • Manipur varsity likely to set up Yoga dept
  • The Killing Fields 2016 :: News Timeline
  • Chance to win guided tour to NASA
  • Raging debate over ST status to Meiteis
  • Imphal-Jiribam Highway : Gallery
  • Purul Paoki- plantation fest #2: Gallery
  • Flooding @MB College #2: Gallery
  • Defiance to Demand for ST Status
  • Achievements of Defence Ministry for 2 yrs
  • Paris Agreement on climate talks
  • JCILPS and STDCM should go together
  • Catastrophe : What is wrong with ILPS
  • Tracing the origin of Tangkhul Nagas #3
  • ILP : Bandh @Jiribam : Gallery
  • Women Infertility Suspected on Food
  • ILP: Imphal-Dimapur highway #2: Gallery
  • Phoomdi & locals that environs Loktak
  • The Killer Filler - 5.2
  • Loktak, the lake of disappointment #2
  • ST gi khanna neinaba meefam tang 22
  • Saving the future to fight over
  • Will Delhi give the assent ?
  • AIDS Candlelight Memorial :Gallery
  • Leima Jagoi @Khunthok Hanbi: Gallery
  • Are 3 bills with Bhavan or PMO?
  • The Thadou renaissance
  • Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)
  • Frequency of rape and molestation
  • Wasting opportunities
  • Manipur Phone Directory :: e-pao Tools
  • Mayanglambam Sobhamani : Kala Award
  • Flooding @MB College #1: Gallery
  • The Three Bills
  • Telephonic interview for jobs
  • Free Interaction Session with S. Asker Ali
  • Singapore FC vs United Manipur FC
  • Jiten Yumnam at UN Permanent Forum
  • Road damaged due to rain at Jiribam
  • Clarion call for Naga unity
  • Demystifying electoral democracy
  • Reflection- Conflicts of our Times #1
  • ILP: Imphal-Dimapur highway #1: Gallery
  • We and our mobile phones
  • A Play in Three Acts :: Poem
  • Introspections and Assessments
  • Tobacco control must be priority..
  • NESO's Executive Council Meeting held
  • ILP Bills: 'Cut-off year not feasible'
  • NPF suspends Rio from party membership
  • Grim reality stares at 'dancing deer'
  • Tearing apart the understanding of Manipur
  • Interrupted future
  • Lai Lamthokpa @KhunthokHanbi: Gallery
  • Martial arts@Phayeng : Gallery
  • ILPS, ST movements are complimentary
  • Laboratory tests for Hepatitis B infection
  • Buddhism and .... what ?
  • Where are we on the globe?
  • Fisheries Workers Demand Day
  • 'Khana neinaba mipham' at Kwakeithel
  • XII results out : Looking beyond Manipur
  • IMC Election Fever: AFSPA off the radar
  • Khongjom War Memorial : Gallery
  • Shirui Lily Festival at Ukhrul
  • ILP: Sit In @Erilbung: Gallery
  • ILP Demand - Photos from 2012 :: Gallery
  • Can Capitalism bring inclusive growth
  • Tribunal- crime against women: Gallery
  • Human Milk Fortifier #2
  • Meeyamgi wakhal lousing pibirakpa
  • Dibrugarh's movie to premiere in Cannes
  • Implement Majithia wage board guideline
  • TechExpo at IIT Guwahati
  • May 16 : Destination Delhi
  • Maring War Dance :: Ooba Video
  • ST Status- Convention : Gallery
  • The Cult Worship Of Civil Servants
  • 3 month student personality Development
  • NE cooperation in BCIM corridor
  • ILP: Bandh imposed on NH-37 #2: Gallery
  • Longjam Joychandra : Akademi Award
  • Introduction Of Bamboo Toilet In Manipur
  • Support for Schedule Tribe Status
  • Two missing Indians presumed dead
  • Nagaland-Manipur peace committee
  • Japan call for nurses- Proposal for 1500
  • Purul Paoki- plantation fest #1: Gallery
  • Yearning for the roots
  • ILP: Sit In @Kwakeithel: Gallery
  • Hints for acquiring MPhil, PhD degree
  • APLCC Thailand: Preventing lung cancer
  • Recruitment @ Numaligarh Refinery
  • Seminar On Hmar Dialect In Manipur
  • Binalakshmi at UN Forum, New York
  • Archived News Photo #2: Gallery
  • Fire at Tengnoupal
  • Gearing up for June 2 IMC polls
  • Roads- Wanglee & Bungtung : Gallery
  • ILP: Bandh imposed on NH-37 #1: Gallery
  • May 12 - International Nurses Day
  • ST status to Pangals?
  • Death :: Poem
  • Transfer & Posting of IPS/MPS officer
  • Objection to Ukhrul House in Imphal
  • 4th International Convention of SPIC MACAY
  • Centre reviews Bezbaruah panel report
  • A mere pass percentage of 65.22
  • Conflicting voices over ILPS demand
  • Class XII Results 2016 : Pass Percent
  • Class XII Results 2016 : Info
  • Class XII Results 2016 : Science
  • Class XII Results 2016 : Commerce
  • Class XII Results 2016 : Arts
  • ILP: Meira Rally- May 8 #2: Gallery
  • In search of handicrafts
  • 'Midbrain Activation' program at Jiri
  • Human mothers & mother earth
  • Playing Aunt Sally on ST status
  • Felicitation Programme for Askar Ali
  • Farmers Training Hall Inaugurated
  • 10th May 1942 - 1st Imphal Bombing WWII
  • ILP: Women/Student Rally - May 9: Gallery
  • ILP: Public Curfew - May 7 #3: Gallery
  • Interview skills for students #2
  • Right wing rise in Meitei Community
  • Course in Biodiversity Conservation
  • Meetei na ST gi list ta chanbasi...
  • JAC against 'anti-tribal' Bills: May 10
  • Understand service of passenger vehicles
  • ILP: Meira Rally- May 8 #1: Gallery
  • Phayeng cultural dance #2: Gallery
  • Irengbam Ibobi : Kala Akademi Award 2013
  • All-party delegation for Delhi on May 16
  • Public Curfew by JCILPS #2 : Gallery
  • Mao Keithel (Market) : Gallery
  • Thang Ta @ MCA #2 : Gallery
  • 'Martyrdom' Anniv @Mao : Gallery
  • Eyek Tamba :: Learn Manipuri script
  • JCILPS Women protest : Gallery
  • State Arts Exhibition #2: Gallery
  • Economic life of Koireng tribe
  • Sagaing to Namlee- Roads : Gallery
  • Yaoshang Photo Galleries from 2002
  • Golmei Sanajao Kabui :Kala Akademi Award
  • Western Front Pilgrimage 2016
  • ILP: People's convention : Gallery
  • Loktak lake #5: Gallery
  • Khongjom Day @Khebaching #3 : Gallery
  • Medical camp @Wanglee, Ukhrul: Gallery
  • Lenshonnei -1975 :: eRang Classic
  • Maphou Khullen, Senapati : Gallery
  • Star Kamei : Artist/Director : Interview
  • Ibotombi: Immortal Character -Shumang Lila
  • Jiribam Wallpaper #7 : Download
  • Condemns misusing Press Identify Card
  • Thang-Ga and Karang : Panorama 360 View
  • Glimpse inside Sana Konung : Gallery
  • Earthquake: Entire Photo Gallery from Jan 4
  • Download :: PMP Bill 2015
  • Download :: MLR&LR Bill 2015
  • Download :: MSE Bill 2015
  • SPONSORED ADS