Of the contribution of Sangai Festival
7% of State Domestic Product contributed by tourism in Himachal Pradesh
A deserving point of reference

Mohendro Nandeibam *

 Manipur Sangai Festival at Sangai Ethnic Park, Moirang Khunou :: November 21 2022
Manipur Sangai Festival at Sangai Ethnic Park, Moirang Khunou on November 21 2022 :: Pix - Lamdamba Oinam

It has been a conventional recommendation that tourism is one of the potential tools for promoting economic development through extensive operation of Tourism Multiplier. Apparently the whole exercise looks simple and easy. It requires low fixed capital and minimum variable capital. It is largely labour-intensive. It does not demand high technical knowledge and advanced management skill.

The gestation period is fairly less. We act on the given hardware and software of natural gifts-capitalising the capital. To-day Manipur is experiencing a new trend of rural tourism in remote weakening villages with all disabilities of dilapidated environment.

But a closer look tells us of the uneasy experience. Tourism is not isolated activity and it depends upon efficacies of physical infrastructures such as roads, transport, water supply, electricity and sewerage etc. The inputs are heterogeneous unlike a factory operating under the same roof of command and control. It is carried out by private individuals whose operational autonomy is hardly questioned.

Government cannot run tourism; Government can at best be facilitator. It is seasonal and subject to subjective factors such as taste, culture and fashion. The satisfaction so provided is function of interplay of human factors of which hospitality, the established manner of decency and discipline, is the crux.

It is, by and large, intangible. It is therefore said to be most fragmented industry. A slight mishap at a point may derail the contribution of the attempt. Besides, the social capital and entrepreneurship has to act as catalyst.

Generally the tourism plan seeks to ensure '3A's; A1= Accommodation, A2= Accessibility and A3= Attractions. It is not easy to prepare a pragmatic plan of action without policy-consensus and co-ordination. Herein lies the Institutional Responsibility of Government as facilitator. Availability of opportunity is one but utilisation of opportunity is entirely a different thing.

Tourism Multiplier which speaks of the relationship between tourism and State economy depends upon the pattern of expenditure incurred by the tourist. The more they spend the higher acceleration and multiplier.

 Manipur Sangai Festival 2022
Manipur Sangai Festival 2022 :: Pix - TSE

It is necessary to calculate the percentage of expenditure on different areas of goods and services. Normally tourists spend 30% of expenditure on accommodation, 25% on food and drinks, 25% on purchase, 10% on recreation entertainment, 5% on internal transport and 5% on sundries (Peter Michael, London, 1969).

Of course, the expenditure pattern may change from State to State. If the host State produces excellent goods and services of their own, Multiplier Effect on the local economy is high.

Well, Sangai Festival is over after a short spell of heats and bubbles. The Festival is unique in the sense of being different from the rest of the country. Now, what is basic contribution to the Gross State Domestic Product ? How to capitalise the momentum so generated ? In what ways Sangai Festival could be a perennial component of Long Term Industrial Policy of Manipur ? What about follow-up to sustain ?

Let us look at Himachal Pradesh. The hill State is endowed with basic tourism resources such as cultural diversity, clean and peaceful environment, beautiful streams, sacred shrines, historic monuments and hospitable people. Public utility services are excellent including clean toilets at bus stands, restaurants and petrol pumps. Besides there are 2,604 hotels having about 70869 of bed facility, 787 home-stay units.

It is not a surprise that tourism contributes 7% to State Domestic Product of Himachal Pradesh. The sector is given high priority with all incentives. The greatest strength is fair and proper documentation. Functional Audit is welcome as feedback. Visitors come as strangers and they go back as friends.

Wrong information leads to inability to work correctly. Advanced States and countries do not compromise proper documentation of actual performance on the ground. This is vital necessity.

The first query is about classified data of tourists who visited Manipur for this purpose. What did they "see" ? What did they "feel" about them ? What are new attractions of exceptional appeal "admired" by them ? Any pragmatic approach to tourism should be governed by three articles such as "see, feel and admire". Based upon the classified data and documents we can prepare the roadmap for a sound foundation for surging tourism in Manipur. Intangible perspective is the seed and soul for tourism industry.

In the meantime we can undertake functional audit by applying SWOT theory. (S=Strength, W=Weakness, O=Opportunity and T=Threat). We have to prepare 3 year plan, 7 year plan and 15 year plan based on the critical findings.

The important contribution of tourism sector in Manipur needs no reiteration. Culturally rich Manipur is economically very poor. The Per Capita Income of Manipur is only Rs 75, 226 as against Rs. 4,30,081 of Goa and Rs. 3,80,926 of Sikkim. Even Tripura goes ahead of Manipur with Rs. 1,12,849 in 2018-19 (GOI, Economic Survey, 2020-21, Vol. 2)

Secondly, the Net State Domestic Product at current prices (2018-19) is visibly poor with only Rs. 25,322 crore as against Rs. 1,33,303 crore of Himachal Pradesh and Rs. 66,000 crore of Goa. Ahead of Manipur the NSDP of Tripura is Rs. 44,835 crore.

Now there is need for a Functional Audit so that we can prepare a new policy with a new Institutional Parenting. Otherwise the Sangai bubbles may disappear and vanish gradually.

A time has definitely come for us to calculate the sectoral contribution of Sangai Festival vis-a-vis Tourism Policy of the State, to the Net State Domestic Product. Remember we are in the age which respects achievements more than mere performance.

There is a need for looking at Sangai extravaganza beyond traditional frontiers of routine exercise. We have to study the economic perspective, social perspective and political perspective.

In a State like Manipur where the performance of manufacturing sector is visibly poor, development priority should be trade and tourism. How far the Sangai Festival could be a foundation for a surging Manipur with a difference ? It requires a long term meticulous planning.

* Mohendro Nandeibam wrote this article for The Sangai Express
The writer is Chairman of Institute of Development Studies, Manipur
This article was webcasted on December 20 2022 .

* Comments posted by users in this discussion thread and other parts of this site are opinions of the individuals posting them (whose user ID is displayed alongside) and not the views of We strongly recommend that users exercise responsibility, sensitivity and caution over language while writing your opinions which will be seen and read by other users. Please read a complete Guideline on using comments on this website.

  • Descent of Radha-Krishna #36: Download
  • Violence in Manipur 2023-2024 : Timeline
  • Saraighat Bridge - An Expedition
  • Meeting with MP Dr Bimol Akoijam
  • Manipur: 11 medal (5 gold) @ Natl Taekwondo
  • Socialization and the Two "Meads"
  • The Power of Poppy - 36 :: Poem
  • Scientist of Manipur: Raghumani Ningthoujam
  • Chilli Chicken Delivers a Flavorful Punch
  • International Day of Yoga 2024
  • Antimicrobial Resistance: Top 10 health threat
  • Indo-Naga Talks (From 2012) :: Timeline
  • Taste vs Health
  • Fiasco of UGC-NET, NEET 2024
  • From NEET to NET: It's time to fix NTA
  • Great June Uprising @Kekrupat #1 : Gallery
  • Ema Panthoibi Phijol Hongba at Mandalay
  • Proposed Palm Plantation behind Jiri violence?
  • 'Why Impose War on Us'
  • Why workers most affected by scorching heat?
  • Coup of 2021 not the only push factor
  • Last chance not to fall from grace
  • Ibudhou Cheng Hongba #1 : Gallery
  • Kind attention 'Your Lordship' CJ of India
  • 'Opposition-less Govt in Nagaland is rhetoric'
  • Xorai - Assam's cultural symbol
  • Natural ways to lighten dark underarms
  • Is Delhi doing the right thing ?
  • Set the priorities right
  • Ima Keithel flood- May 30 #3 : Gallery
  • Modi's arduous journey & fate of Naga peace
  • Autism: Why fit in, when you can stand out?
  • Bloodstained Masquerade :: Poem
  • Dharamvir Singh: Forgotten hero of TV
  • What is keeping the clash going on ?
  • Warning of a coming politico-military storm
  • Birth Centenary of Jananeta Irabat, 1996 : #6
  • The Great June 18 Uprising : Timeline
  • The Great June 18 Uprising : Gallery
  • Are we on track to end AIDS by 2030 ?
  • 3 writers from Manipur for Sahitya Akademi
  • Manipur's traffic, parking: A big nuisance
  • Career in elderly care
  • Keeping the folks under a state of confusion
  • Nothing neat about NEET
  • Aid to relief camps @ Jiribam : Gallery
  • Id Festival- 'Id-Ul-Azha' :: Book
  • World Day to Combat Desertification 2024
  • NDPP did not lose LS due to local problem
  • RSS chief says, priority Manipur
  • What if not IIT ?
  • Waiting for a response from the PM
  • The test of leadership failed
  • Descent of Radha-Krishna #35: Download
  • Gastronomy tourism in Manipur : Gallery
  • Triathlon : Manipur bag 6 medals (3 gold)
  • Illegal immigrants/fugitives from Myanmar
  • Eid-ul-Adha: Embracing sacrifice
  • A solution to Meitei-Kuki-Zo conflict
  • The Power of Poppy - 35 :: Poem
  • Scientist of Manipur: R K Brojen Singh
  • Brief sketch on General Balaram Sougaijamba
  • Non-violent for peaceful, mutual co-existence
  • Homeless person ..alcoholism & defeated TB
  • Cancer on rise among young adults
  • Defending, fighting for Idea of Manipur
  • From partiality to complicity
  • Bike Rally - Sekmai to Kangla : Gallery
  • 'Modi must announce finality of Naga pacts'
  • Gliding over Brahmaputra
  • Question leaks cause stress among student
  • Home remedies for prickly heat
  • After IIT, AIIMS it is now IIM
  • Stealing spotlight from Manipur crisis
  • Tarpon chaklen katpa @ Andro #2 : Gallery
  • Strongly condemns violence in Jiribam
  • Lessons from outcome of LS election
  • Tumcho releases "Goodness of God"
  • Right diagnostic for antimicrobial resistance
  • 12th June is World Day against Child Labour
  • Hands of geo-politics ?
  • The row over NEET-2014
  • 2nd Annual Art Exhibition #1 : Gallery
  • Chilli Chicken: Film Spotlighting NE in B'lore
  • Committee of Narcotics Anonymous - Imphal
  • The Power of Meditation
  • Oceans as a career choice
  • Getting more and more audacious
  • A test of leadership
  • Education Fair @Imphal #2 : Gallery
  • Gifting two seats to Cong
  • Voters empowered democracy
  • Postcards from Meghalaya premieres
  • Milk : Essential nutrient for a healthy body
  • Failing in competitive exam not end of world
  • Delhi : A mere spectator
  • Abandoning Jiribam
  • Birth Centenary of Jananeta Irabat, 1996 : #5
  • Ima Keithel flood- May 30 #2 : Gallery
  • Mainstream in Shoes of Alternative
  • Protect the medicines that protect us
  • Lets take action for our land & our future
  • Democracy and independent media
  • Agenda at work to shut Western Gate
  • Keeping Manipur on the boil
  • Descent of Radha-Krishna #34: Download
  • The Enigmatic Journey of 'Laikhutshangbi'
  • Individual and the Social
  • An Ardent Appeal to All Concerns
  • Condemnation of Attack & Govt Inaction
  • The Power of Poppy - 34 :: Poem
  • Scientist of Manipur: Laishram Shanta
  • Alien fishes spotted in Manipur's rivers
  • Training on mushroom at Langthabal
  • Digital avatars or deepfakes ?
  • 7th June is the World Food Safety Day
  • How to prepare for UPSC after 10th ?
  • The Jiri violence
  • Beginning of a new vote culture ?
  • Bimol Akoijam (Cong) wins Inner PC : Gallery
  • BJP, NPF & other NDA pay heavy price
  • Nature is one of greatest blessings of God
  • Plantation drive in Tripura, Assam & Manipur
  • Summer beauty
  • Environment conservation & over-exploitation
  • Is Modi cut out for leading a coalition ?
  • 'Ishanou' Selection @ Cannes #2: Gallery
  • Scholarship for Johnstone Hr Sec students
  • 1st foundation day of Interfaith Forum
  • World Environment Day: Our land, our future
  • Indonesia stronger anti-tobacco measures
  • Navigating a fragile Myanmar: India's policy
  • New breed entering electoral politics
  • The road to formation of new govt
  • International Dance Day #1 : Gallery
  • Matchbox marketing mantra
  • Stop harming nature :: Poem
  • Saving for oneself & the Nation
  • Model United Nations (MUN) conducted
  • Tobacco: Threat to health & environment
  • Candidate from ruling party biting the dust
  • The verdict
  • Birth Centenary of Jananeta Irabat, 1996 : #4
  • Imphal valley districts flooded #3 : Gallery
  • Navigating Remal amidst Manipur conflict
  • We are #GenerationRestoration
  • Intl Day of Innocent Children Victims
  • Apparel Industry Skills & Innovation CoE
  • What's in a cyclone's name ?
  • Ongoing clash, the floods, the losses
  • Exit poll predictions
  • Descent of Radha-Krishna #33: Download
  • Evading flood & rethinking urbanization
  • Manipur Flood: Health Advisory
  • Onus on civil bodies to ensure NNPG unity
  • Rats also cause flood
  • Benefits of JEE Main mock tests
  • People have spoken, now the results
  • The fury of Remal
  • Ima Keithel flood- May 30 #1 : Gallery
  • The flood in our Stars
  • The Power of Poppy - 33 :: Poem
  • 'Group of people misrepresented themselves'
  • EV industry and career options
  • Scientist of Manipur: Chandrakant Aribam
  • Candy flavoured traps to hook next Gen
  • Commemorate Naga Plesbicite Day 1951 #2
  • Tobacco affects health & environment too
  • Jio extend validity for Customer in Manipur
  • Students must learn about AI irrespective
  • As vote count day approaches : Floods
  • Imphal valley districts flooded #2 : Gallery
  • Flooded : Sacrifice of Yairipok's Maiden
  • World No Tobacco Day 2024
  • Chandam Rishikanta wins NPC Nat'l C'ship
  • Flood: Helpline numbers for emergency
  • Battling body odour ?
  • Floods : Not entirely natural phenomena
  • PM Modi's purpose
  • Imphal valley districts flooded #1 : Gallery
  • June Calendar for Year 2024 : Tools
  • Flood: Control Rooms & Helpline numbers
  • Economic impact of ongoing conflict
  • Army Recruitment Rally for Manipur
  • Cut deficit, boom likely
  • Are Gods angry ? Wake up call for Manipur
  • Beating of the Retreat #2 : Gallery
  • We did Overcome: Mayhem of Month of May
  • Training on mushroom at Potshagbam
  • Famous female Mathematicians in India
  • Disinformation campaign thengnare
  • Human trafficking puts humanity to shame
  • Sky opens up in all its fury
  • Licypriya meets Italy PM & Pope Francis
  • HSLC (Class X) 2024 : Full Result
  • HSLC 2024 : Important Info & Grading System
  • HSLC 2024 : Pass % : Private Schools
  • HSLC 2024 : Pass % : Aided Schools
  • HSLC 2024 : Pass % : Govt Schools
  • HSLC 2024 : Statistical Abstract
  • HSLC 2024 : Comparative Statement
  • Combined Defence Services Exam 2024
  • Good show in Class X exams
  • Downplaying the crisis
  • Birth Centenary of Jananeta Irabat, 1996 : #3
  • Reviving Lamphelpat : Conservation : Gallery
  • Commemorate Naga Plesbicite Day 1951 #1
  • "ST status for Meetei" at Hojai
  • The Power of Poppy - 32 :: Poem
  • Insights from CUET-UG Counselling
  • International Day for Biological Diversity
  • Unseen force at work: Time to unravel it
  • Sheikh Hasina's revelation
  • The Vanishing Meitei Tribe
  • Building career in defence & strategic study
  • Why example of model code of conduct ?
  • Ownership of responsibility
  • Will pressure mount on key players in NE
  • How to save your foot after an accident
  • Children Camp @JNMDA Imphal #3 : Gallery
  • Education Fair @Imphal #1 : Gallery
  • Project Associate @ CSE, Assam Univ
  • Understanding schizophrenia
  • Advancement in Multi Objective Optimization
  • When will women in voter list increase ?
  • Making 2 plus 2 is equal to 5
  • Changing face of drug menace
  • Scientist of Manipur: Jayanta Manoharmayum
  • 25 yrs since Atal Vajpayee visit to RIMS
  • 4 Lakhs donated to support (L) Maipak Family
  • Clarification: Guwahati Meet on Humanitarian
  • Start UPSC prep after 12th for success
  • Tips to avoid melting makeup in summer
  • Giving a big solid push to ST demand
  • Time to come clean
  • Sajibu Cheiraoba: 1 occasion, 2 narratives #3
  • Khongjom Day @Khebaching #2 : Gallery
  • 'Ishanou' Selection @ Cannes #1: Gallery
  • Birth Centenary of Jananeta Irabat, 1996 : #2
  • Scientist of Manipur: Amom Ruhikanta
  • Preserving Thang-Ta :: Rare Photos
  • Regarding Human Rights Situation in Manipur
  • Malemnganbi Laishram : Science Topper
  • Featured Front Page Photo 2024 #2: Gallery
  • Thokchom Sheityajit : Arts Topper
  • Aiena Naorem : Commerce Topper
  • Hr Secondary Exam 2024 : Science Topper
  • HSE 2024 : Subject Pass Percentage
  • HSE 2024 : District Pass Percentage
  • HSE 2024 : Candidates with Highest Marks
  • Hr Secondary Exam 2024: Science Full Result
  • Hr Secondary Exam 2024: Arts Full Result
  • Hr Secondary Exam 2024: Commerce Result
  • Hr Secondary Exam 2024 : Arts Topper
  • Hr Secondary Exam 2024 : Commerce Topper
  • Aftermath of ferocious hailstorm #1 : Gallery
  • Radio E-pao: Manipuri Film OST (130+ song)
  • Nupi Landa Thaunaphabishing : Full Book
  • A ferocious hailstorm @Imphal : Gallery
  • '365 Days of Chin-Kuki Aggression' : Gallery
  • National Science Teacher workshop
  • Sajibu Cheiraoba Chak Katpa #2 : Gallery
  • Scientists of Manipur : Ngangkham Nimai
  • GHOST of PEACE :: Download Booklet
  • List of Kings of Manipur: 33 - 1984 AD